Updated 2015-06-26 00:06:26 by MiHa

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Introduction edit

MiHa 2015-06-13: HelloWorld-programs are supposed to be the most simple, working programs of a given language.

But I want to extend such a HelloWorld-program to a one-page - reference-card,
where all the essential features of the language are shown.
Several short programs would be ok, too.
If possible, while doing something useful (and/or funny).

Tcl by itself (without Tk) is quite simple, so an amount of code to fill about one printed page should be enough.
(The layout may need to be tweaked, e.g. printing front and back, landscape, and in 2-4 columns:)

Basic Tcl Commands to cover:

Advanced features (to include if space permits):

...

More features, to be left out, for a later lesson (too advanced, or too rarely needed for an introduction):

...

Things to be aware of:

Maybe there already are some programs here in the wiki that would qualify for such a refcard-program...

}

Program 1 - puts edit

  # HelloWorld001.tcl - 2015-06-13 - http://wiki.tcl.tk/41268

  # Output a string to terminal:

  puts "Hello, World!"

  ### END ###

Program 2 - set, incr, catch, if, exit edit

# HelloWorld002 - 2015-06-25
# http://ideone.com/ZWCbmF
 
# Assign value to variables, and output:
 
set a "The answer is"               ;# assign a constant text
set x 42                            ;# assign a constant number
set n $x                            ;# assign contents of a variable

puts $a
puts $x
puts "n = $n"
 
incr n                               ;# add 1 to a numeric variable
incr n 2                             ;# add 2 to a numeric variable

catch { incr a }                     ;# try a command, catch and ignore errors

if { [ catch {incr a} ] } {          ;# catch error, and do something:
   puts "!! Cannot increment variable containing a string: '$a' !!"
  #exit 1                            ;# exit program with an errorcode
}
puts "$a now $n"

# END #

Output 2
The answer is
42
n = 42
!! Cannot increment variable containing a string: 'The answer is' !!
The answer is now 45

Program 3 - clock, timedate, if, else edit

# HelloWorld003.tcl - MiHa - 2015-06-13
# http://wiki.tcl.tk/41268 / http://ideone.com/xl0IBI

# Query the time (cs as a number, td and hh as a string), 
# output depending on the value of the hour:

set cs [clock seconds]                                    ;# seconds since 1970-01-01
set td [clock format $cs  -format "%Y-%m-%d  %H:%M:%S" ]  ;# timedate
set hh [clock format $cs  -format %H ]                    ;# hours (00-23)

puts "cs=$cs  td='$td'  hh=$hh"

if { $hh < "12" } {
    puts -nonewline "Good morning, "
} else {
    puts -nonewline "Hello, "
}
puts "World!"

# END #

Output 3
cs=1434926575  td='2015-06-21  22:42:55'  hh=22
Hello, World!

Program 4 - clock, if,else,elseif edit

# HelloWorld004.tcl - MiHa - 2015-06-21
# http://wiki.tcl.tk/41268 / http://ideone.com/Llp8Os

# Query the hour from the clock, 
# output text depending on the value of the hour:

set cs [clock seconds]                          ;# seconds since 1970-01-01
set hh [clock format $cs  -format %H ]          ;# hours (00-23)

puts "cs=$cs  hh=$hh"

if { $hh < "12" } {
    puts -nonewline "Good morning, "
} elseif { $hh > "18" } {
    puts -nonewline "Good evening, "
} else {
    puts -nonewline "Hello, "
}
puts "World!"

# END #

Output 4
cs=973531773  hh=17
Hello, World!

and
cs=1434927642  hh=23
Good evening, World!

Program 5 - string compare edit

# HelloWorld005 - 2015-06-23
# http://ideone.com/OJoort

# Comparing strings:

set hh "20"

set tx "Hello"
if { $hh < "12" } { set tx "Good Morning" }
if { $hh > "18" } { set tx "Good Evening" }

puts "It is $hh:00 --> $tx, World !"
#.

Output 5
It is 20:00 --> Good Evening, World !

Program 6 - proc,return edit

# HelloWorld006 - 2015-06-23
# http://ideone.com/GBiMab

# Comparing strings, proc as function

proc greeting {hh}  {
  set gr "Hello"
  if { $hh <  "12" } { set gr "Good Morning"    }
  if { $hh == "12" } { set gr "Happy Lunchtime" }
  if { $hh  > "18" } { set gr "Good Evening"    }
  return $gr
}

set hh "12"
set tx [greeting $hh]
puts "It is $hh:00 --> $tx, World !"

#.

Output 6
It is 12:00 --> Happy Lunchtime, World !

Program 7 - proc, while, gets edit

# HelloWorld007 - 2015-06-23
# http://ideone.com/mcV6YL

# Comparing strings, proc as function, input in while-loop

proc greeting {hh}  {
# This proc returns a result as soon as a match is found:
  set gr "Hello"
  if { $hh <  "12" } { return "Good Morning"    }
  if { $hh == "12" } { return "Happy Lunchtime" }
  if { $hh  > "24" } { return "Goodbye" }
  if { $hh  > "18" } { return "Good Evening"    }
  return $gr
}

set hour "99"               ;# start with any value that keeps the loop going
while { $hour > "0" } {
  puts -nonewline "Enter hour, 0 to quit: "
  set hour [gets stdin]
  puts $hour
  
  puts "It is $hour:00 --> [greeting $hour], World !"
}
puts "Bye!"

#.

Output 7
Enter hour, 0 to quit: 1
It is 1:00 --> Good Morning, World !
Enter hour, 0 to quit: 11
It is 11:00 --> Good Morning, World !
Enter hour, 0 to quit: 12
It is 12:00 --> Happy Lunchtime, World !
Enter hour, 0 to quit: 15
It is 15:00 --> Hello, World !
Enter hour, 0 to quit: 17
It is 17:00 --> Hello, World !
Enter hour, 0 to quit: 18
It is 18:00 --> Hello, World !
Enter hour, 0 to quit: 19
It is 19:00 --> Good Evening, World !
Enter hour, 0 to quit: 25
It is 25:00 --> Goodbye, World !
Enter hour, 0 to quit: 0
It is 0:00 --> Good Morning, World !
Bye!

Program 8 - for with integer, format edit

# HelloWorld008 - 2015-06-23
# http://ideone.com/lKo08L

# Comparing strings, proc as function, for-loop, format

proc greeting {hh}  {
# This proc returns a result as soon as a match is found:
  set gr "Hello"
  if { $hh <  "12" } { return "Good Morning"    }
  if { $hh == "12" } { return "Happy Lunchtime" }
  if { $hh  > "24" } { return "Goodbye" }
  if { $hh  > "18" } { return "Good Evening"    }
  return $gr
}

puts "Greeting:"
for {set h 0} {$h<=25} {incr h} {
 #set hour $h                  ;# Tcl converts number to string, as needed
 #set hour [format "%2d"  $h]  ;# format as numeric string with 2 digits
  set hour [format "%02d" $h]  ;# format as 2 digits with leading 0
  puts "at $hour:00 --> [greeting $hour], World !"
}
puts "Done."

#.

Output 8
Greeting:
at 00:00 --> Good Morning, World !
at 01:00 --> Good Morning, World !
at 02:00 --> Good Morning, World !
at 03:00 --> Good Morning, World !
at 04:00 --> Good Morning, World !
at 05:00 --> Good Morning, World !
at 06:00 --> Good Morning, World !
at 07:00 --> Good Morning, World !
at 08:00 --> Good Morning, World !
at 09:00 --> Good Morning, World !
at 10:00 --> Good Morning, World !
at 11:00 --> Good Morning, World !
at 12:00 --> Happy Lunchtime, World !
at 13:00 --> Hello, World !
at 14:00 --> Hello, World !
at 15:00 --> Hello, World !
at 16:00 --> Hello, World !
at 17:00 --> Hello, World !
at 18:00 --> Hello, World !
at 19:00 --> Good Evening, World !
at 20:00 --> Good Evening, World !
at 21:00 --> Good Evening, World !
at 22:00 --> Good Evening, World !
at 23:00 --> Good Evening, World !
at 24:00 --> Good Evening, World !
at 25:00 --> Goodbye, World !
Done.

Program 9 - expr, format edit

# HelloWorld009.tcl - 2015-06-23
# http://ideone.com/kgfFX1

# calculations using expr, formatting numbers

  set x 3.0
  set y 7.0

  set distance [expr sqrt($x * $x + $y * $y)]
  set dist2    [format %9.2f $distance]        ;# format as float with 2 decimal digits
  
  puts "x=$x y=$y  distance=$distance ==> $dist2"

#.

Output 9
x=3.0 y=7.0  distance=7.615773105863909 ==>      7.62

Program 10 - proc, expr, format, for with float, output as table edit

# HelloWorld010.tcl - 2015-06-23
# http://ideone.com/Pjrz4x

# calculations using expr, formatting numbers/strings as table

  proc distance {x y}  {
  # calculate, return result as number
    return  [expr sqrt($x * $x + $y * $y)]
  }
  
  proc ff {num}  {
  # format number as float with 4 decimal digits
    set f [format %9.4f $num]
    return $f
  }

  proc fs {tx}  {
  # format text with fixed width, for use as header
    return [format %9s $tx]
  }
  
  proc showDistance {x y}  {
  # calculate, format numbers, output / return nothing
    set distance  [format %9.4f [expr sqrt($x * $x + $y * $y)]]
    puts "x=[ff $x] y=[ff $y]  distance=$distance"
  }

  showDistance 1.0 1.0

  set x 2.0;  set y 5.0;
  showDistance $x $y

  set x 5.0;  set y 12.0;  showDistance $x $y

  puts "\nTable:"                                   ;# newline
  puts "[fs x] [fs y]  [fs distance]"
  puts "[fs =] [fs =]  [fs ========]"
  
  for {set x 0.0} {$x<=11.0} {set x [expr $x+2.5]} {
    for {set y 11.5} {$y<13.0} {set y [expr $y+0.5]} {
     #puts "$x $y"
      puts "[ff $x] [ff $y ]  [ff [distance $x $y ] ]"
    }
    puts ""
  }
  puts "Done."
#.

Output 10
x=   1.0000 y=   1.0000  distance=   1.4142
x=   2.0000 y=   5.0000  distance=   5.3852
x=   5.0000 y=  12.0000  distance=  13.0000

Table:
        x         y   distance
        =         =   ========
   0.0000   11.5000    11.5000
   0.0000   12.0000    12.0000
   0.0000   12.5000    12.5000

   2.5000   11.5000    11.7686
   2.5000   12.0000    12.2577
   2.5000   12.5000    12.7475

   5.0000   11.5000    12.5399
   5.0000   12.0000    13.0000
   5.0000   12.5000    13.4629

   7.5000   11.5000    13.7295
   7.5000   12.0000    14.1510
   7.5000   12.5000    14.5774

  10.0000   11.5000    15.2398
  10.0000   12.0000    15.6205
  10.0000   12.5000    16.0078

Done.

Program 11 - foreach, for, list,lappend,llength,lindex edit

# HelloWorld011.tcl - 2015-06-24
# http://ideone.com/Ia463h

# foreach, list,lappend,llength,lindex:

set deck {}                                     ;# create empty list

puts "Deck of cards:"
foreach rank { A 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 J Q K } {   ;# Ace 2 .. 10 Jack Queen King
  foreach suit { S H D C } {                    ;# Spades Hearts Diamonds Clubs
    set card "$rank$suit"
    puts -nonewline " $rank-$suit:$card "

    lappend deck $card                          ;# add card to deck
  }
  puts ""
}


puts "\nThe list with the deck of cards has [llength $deck] elements:"

for {set i 0; set n 0} {$i < [llength $deck]} {incr i; incr n} {
  if { $n >= 8 } { puts ""; set n 0 }        ;# newline after 8 cards
  if { $n == 4 } { puts -nonewline "  " }    ;# extra space after 4 cards 
  
  set c [lindex $deck $i]                    ;# get element #i from the list
  puts -nonewline "$i: $c "
}  
puts "\nDone."
#.

Output 11
Deck of cards:
 A-S:AS  A-H:AH  A-D:AD  A-C:AC 
 2-S:2S  2-H:2H  2-D:2D  2-C:2C 
 3-S:3S  3-H:3H  3-D:3D  3-C:3C 
 4-S:4S  4-H:4H  4-D:4D  4-C:4C 
 5-S:5S  5-H:5H  5-D:5D  5-C:5C 
 6-S:6S  6-H:6H  6-D:6D  6-C:6C 
 7-S:7S  7-H:7H  7-D:7D  7-C:7C 
 8-S:8S  8-H:8H  8-D:8D  8-C:8C 
 9-S:9S  9-H:9H  9-D:9D  9-C:9C 
 10-S:10S  10-H:10H  10-D:10D  10-C:10C 
 J-S:JS  J-H:JH  J-D:JD  J-C:JC 
 Q-S:QS  Q-H:QH  Q-D:QD  Q-C:QC 
 K-S:KS  K-H:KH  K-D:KD  K-C:KC 

The list with the deck of cards has 52 elements:
0: AS 1: AH 2: AD 3: AC   4: 2S 5: 2H 6: 2D 7: 2C 
8: 3S 9: 3H 10: 3D 11: 3C   12: 4S 13: 4H 14: 4D 15: 4C 
16: 5S 17: 5H 18: 5D 19: 5C   20: 6S 21: 6H 22: 6D 23: 6C 
24: 7S 25: 7H 26: 7D 27: 7C   28: 8S 29: 8H 30: 8D 31: 8C 
32: 9S 33: 9H 34: 9D 35: 9C   36: 10S 37: 10H 38: 10D 39: 10C 
40: JS 41: JH 42: JD 43: JC   44: QS 45: QH 46: QD 47: QC 
48: KS 49: KH 50: KD 51: KC 
Done.

Program 12 - foreach 2, unicode-chars, string,append, lappend, array,parray edit

# HelloWorld012.tcl - 2015-06-24
# http://ideone.com/uKSgZR

# foreach, unicode-chars, append, lappend, array,parray

set deckStr  ""                                 ;# create empty string
set deckList {}                                 ;# create empty list
array set deckArray {}                          ;# create empty array

puts "Deck of cards:"
set i 0

# see also: http://wiki.tcl.tk/26403 : [HTML character entity references]

                   # Spades    Hearts    Diamonds  Clubs
foreach {suit sym} { S \u2660  H \u2665  D \u2666  C \u2663 } {   
  foreach rank { A 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 J Q K } { ;# Ace 2 .. 10 Jack Queen King
    incr i
    set card "$rank$sym"
    puts -nonewline " $rank$suit=$card "

    append  deckStr   $card                     ;# add card to string
    lappend deckList  $card                     ;# add card to list
    set deckArray($i) $card                     ;# add card to array
  }
  puts ""
}
set maxCard $i

puts "\ndeckStr  : $deckStr"                    ;# note: no spaces between
puts "S) card #3 : [string range $deckStr 4 5]" ;# 0-1  2-3  4-5  ...

puts "\ndeckList : $deckList"
puts "L) card #3 : [lindex $deckList 2]"        ;# index is zero-based

puts "\nparray:"
parray deckArray                                ;# show all elements, unsorted
puts "A) card #3 = $deckArray(3)"

puts "\nDone."
#.

Output 12
Deck of cards:
 AS=A♠  2S=2♠  3S=3♠  4S=4♠  5S=5♠  6S=6♠  7S=7♠  8S=8♠  9S=9♠  10S=10♠  JS=J♠  QS=Q♠  KS=K♠ 
 AH=A♥  2H=2♥  3H=3♥  4H=4♥  5H=5♥  6H=6♥  7H=7♥  8H=8♥  9H=9♥  10H=10♥  JH=J♥  QH=Q♥  KH=K♥ 
 AD=A♦  2D=2♦  3D=3♦  4D=4♦  5D=5♦  6D=6♦  7D=7♦  8D=8♦  9D=9♦  10D=10♦  JD=J♦  QD=Q♦  KD=K♦ 
 AC=A♣  2C=2♣  3C=3♣  4C=4♣  5C=5♣  6C=6♣  7C=7♣  8C=8♣  9C=9♣  10C=10♣  JC=J♣  QC=Q♣  KC=K♣ 

deckStr  : A♠2♠3♠4♠5♠6♠7♠8♠9♠10♠J♠Q♠K♠A♥2♥3♥4♥5♥6♥7♥8♥9♥10♥J♥Q♥K♥A♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7♦8♦9♦10♦J♦Q♦K♦A♣2♣3♣4♣5♣6♣7♣8♣9♣10♣J♣Q♣K♣
S) card #3 : 3♠

deckList : A♠ 2♠ 3♠ 4♠ 5♠ 6♠ 7♠ 8♠ 9♠ 10♠ J♠ Q♠ K♠ A♥ 2♥ 3♥ 4♥ 5♥ 6♥ 7♥ 8♥ 9♥ 10♥ J♥ Q♥ K♥ A♦ 2♦ 3♦ 4♦ 5♦ 6♦ 7♦ 8♦ 9♦ 10♦ J♦ Q♦ K♦ A♣ 2♣ 3♣ 4♣ 5♣ 6♣ 7♣ 8♣ 9♣ 10♣ J♣ Q♣ K♣
L) card #3 : 3♠

parray:
deckArray(1)  = A♠
deckArray(10) = 10♠
deckArray(11) = J♠
deckArray(12) = Q♠
deckArray(13) = K♠
..
deckArray(48) = 9♣
deckArray(49) = 10♣
deckArray(5)  = 5♠
deckArray(50) = J♣
deckArray(51) = Q♣
deckArray(52) = K♣
deckArray(6)  = 6♠
deckArray(7)  = 7♠
deckArray(8)  = 8♠
deckArray(9)  = 9♠
A) card #3 = 3♠

Done.

Program 13 - xx edit

# HelloWorld013.tcl - 2015-06-24
# http://ideone.com/1t0KK7

#.

Output 13
xx

Some ideas:

  • Table of primes
    • as list / array
  • Dice-rolling
    • with min/max/average
  • Number of days between dates

...
 **Program 1x - xx**
# HelloWorld01x.tcl - 2015-06-24

#.

 '''Output 1x'''
xx


Remarks edit

This is the Alpha-version, there will be bugs, so use with caution
...

See also: