of a value indicates what operations can be performed on that value, and implies how those operations might be performed.
There is some concept of type at every level of machine instruction At the assembly
level, assemblers deal explicitly with the manipulation of groups of bits
, so the types of operands it understands are strictly related to the physical characteristics of memory and of CPU
registers, namely the size of the operand in bits
. Programming languages
at each successive layer attempt to provide data types that are more abstracted
from the strict characteristics of the underlying machine and closer to the logical data types than humans think in terms of. At the next level up, for example, languages such as C
provide numeric types and operators that are closer to the mathematics that humans practice, but that are still somewhat defined in terms of the size they occupy in machine memory. C
also provides a struct
type, instances of which are composed from user-specified sequences of the other physical types including the struct
type itself. Moving up yet another layer, languages like C++
provide facilities to create purely logical data types, along with facilities for giving operators semantics that make sense for the logical types that users define. At yet another layer, scripting Languages
attempt to dispense with much of the verbiage of explicitly declaring types, relying instead on either how the value was created or how it is used to determine the logical type of the value. Scripting languages are also generally more dynamic, such that this type resolution can only happen at the point that the particular function/command/statement/expression is executed. Regardless of how far toward logical data types a language leans, internally it must ultimately map these logical types and their operations onto the lower-level physical types that CPU
instruction sets accept. Higher-level languages spend a good deal of their processing time working out the details of this mapping, and research into reducing this overhead is a hot topic.
Some languages such as Smalltalk
present more novel approaches to data types. In Smalltalk there is only one data type: "object", and there are no operators - only messages between objectw, which are expected to know internally what the messages intended for them mean and how to react to them. Tcl
represents another novel approach that bears some similarity to Smalltalk. There are no objects, just values which are all strings
, and commands
. Each command is a system unto itself, may be implemented in C
or some other language, and may use any type strategy it chooses. The only constraint it has is that it must accept Tcl values, and return a Tcl value.
Type Inference edit
Some languages such as C
require the programmer to declare the type of each variable and each argument to each function. Other languages such as ML
infer the type of a value or expression by inspecting its syntax and context. In Tcl, at the script level, every value is already a string
, so there is no need to try to determine its type. Each command though, can use any strategy it chooses to process values. Many built-in commands such as lappend
specify what type they will interpret each of their arguments as. A third-party command might actually be implemented in ML
, and would therefore have the full facilities of that language available to process its inputs.
One key difference in Tcl is that because each value is a string
, the question is not "what type is this value ?", but "what type can this value be interpreted as?".
Type Safety editType Safety
refers to the ability of a compiler or interpreter
to ensure that functions/commands are invoked only with values of the proper type. An explicitly and statically-typed language like C
can provide type safety fairly easily, although C
in particular allows the programmer to escape the confines of its type safety mechanism via casting. Higher-level languages that choose that attempt ensure type safety come up with various schemes for doing so. Both Tcl and Smalltalk act simply as conveyers of values (Tcl) or messages (Smalltalk). and any type checks that might be performed would be up to each command (Tcl) or object (Smalltalk).
See Also edit
- abstract data types
- type checking
- Types and Programming Languages, Benjamin C. Pierce
- A type system is a syntactic method for enforcing levels of abstraction in programs. The study of type systems--and of programming languages from a type-theoretic perspective--has important applications in software engineering, language design, high-performance compilers, and security. This text provides a comprehensive introduction both to type systems in computer science and to the basic theory of programming languages. The approach is pragmatic and operational; each new concept is motivated by programming examples and the more theoretical sections are driven by the needs of implementations. Each chapter is accompanied by numerous exercises and solutions, as well as a running implementation. Dependencies between chapters are explicitly identified, allowing readers to choose a variety of paths through the material. The core topics include the untyped lambda-calculus, simple type systems, type reconstruction, universal and existential polymorphism, subtyping, bounded quantification, recursive types, kinds, and type operators. Extended case studies develop a variety of approaches to modeling the features of object-oriented languages.