Updated 2016-01-31 05:34:02 by HJG

Summary edit

HJG 2006-10-16: This is an example of how to put widgets onto a canvas.

It shows a simplified schema of a neuron [1], which is summing up its input-signals,
and 'fires' when this sum exceeds a threshold.
With the sliders you can change the input, their weight and the threshold.

Code edit

 # -*- mode: tcl; tab-width: 4; coding: iso-8859-1 -*-
 # Restart with tcl:  \
 exec wish $0 ${1+"$@"}

 # neuro1.tcl - HaJo Gurt - 2006-10-17 - http://wiki.tcl.tk/17067
 #: Widgets on a canvas : Sliders + Entryfields
 # Simple Schema of a neuron, summing its input-signals,
 # and firing when the sum exceeds a threshold.

  package require Tk

  array set S { x1 20  w1 1   x2 50  w2  8 \
                t1 500 title "Neuronal Processing" \
                s1 0   s2 0  sum 0  out 0 }

  proc int x { expr int($x) }

  proc Calc x {
  #: Calculate results + update display
    global S

    set S(s1)  [expr {$S(x1) * $S(w1)} ]
    set S(s2)  [expr {$S(x2) * $S(w2)} ]
    set S(sum) [expr {$S(s1) + $S(s2)} ]
    set S(out) [expr {$S(sum) >= $S(t1)} ]
    if { $S(out) } {
      .c itemconfig out -fill red
    } else {
      .c itemconfig out -fill cyan

  proc Init {} {
  #: Build GUI
    global S

    wm title . "Neuro1"
    canvas .c -relief raised  -borderwidth 0  -height 400  -width 560  -bg white
    pack   .c

    option add *Scale.highlightThickness 0
    option add *Scale.orient vertical
    option add *Scale.relief ridge
    option add *Entry.relief sunken

    scale .c.sx1 -from 100 -to    0 -variable S(x1) -command Calc -label "x1"  
    scale .c.sx2 -from 100 -to    0 -variable S(x2) -command Calc -label "x2"  
    scale .c.sw1 -from  10 -to    0 -variable S(w1) -command Calc -label "w1"  
    scale .c.sw2 -from  10 -to    0 -variable S(w2) -command Calc -label "w2"  
    scale .c.st1 -from   0 -to 2000 -variable S(t1) -command Calc -label "Threshold" -orient horizontal 

    entry .c.es1 -width 5 -textvar S(s1)  -state readonly
    entry .c.es2 -width 5 -textvar S(s2)  -state readonly
   #entry .c.es3 -width 5 -textvar S(sum) -state readonly  ;##
    scale .c.ss3 -from 2000 -to   0 -variable S(sum) -length 200 -sliderlength 5 -state disabled -bg green2
    entry .c.es4 -width 3 -textvar S(out) -state readonly

    .c create text   280  20          -text $S(title) -font {Times 24 bold}

    .c create text    12  80          -text "Input 1"   -anchor w
    .c create line    30 100  310 100 -width 5 -arrow last
    .c create window  50  50          -window .c.sx1    -anchor nw
    .c create window  50 200          -window .c.sx2    -anchor nw
    .c create window 240  75          -window .c.es1    -anchor w

    .c create text    12 230          -text "Input 2"   -anchor w
    .c create line    30 250  310 250 -width 5 -arrow last
    .c create window 150  50          -window .c.sw1    -anchor nw
    .c create window 150 200          -window .c.sw2    -anchor nw
    .c create window 240 225          -window .c.es2    -anchor w

    .c create text   160 315          -text "Weight"    -anchor w

    .c create window 275 320          -window .c.st1    -anchor nw
    .c create line   350 320  350 300 -width 1 -arrow last

    .c create oval   300  50  400 300 -width 3 -fill green2
    .c create text   350  65          -text "Sum"
    .c create window 350 175          -window .c.ss3  ;## .c.es3 / .c.ss3
    .c create line   400 175  450 175 -width 5 -arrow last

    .c create oval   450 125  530 225 -width 3 -tag out
    .c create text   490 150          -text "Output"
    .c create window 490 175          -window .c.es4

    # Debug: show cursor-position :
   #bind .c <Motion>  {wm title . [int [%W canvasx %x]],[int [%W canvasy %y]]}


Comments edit

?who?: while this is a nice little demo, I think a better demo would be to have the widgets be children of the canvas. The point is not illustrated with this demo, but if they aren't children of the canvas they won't be clipped by the canvas, and that will be noticible in certain contexts.

HJG: On this wiki, nearly every program using the canvas puts all the controls and widgets outside it. Horoscope pie plotter was the only example I could find, where widgets are placed onto the canvas.

?who?: ... which is why it's best if examples on the wiki are as proper as possible. Otherwise, poor form is propagated. :-)

Obviously, it is perfectly valid to have embedded widgets that are not children of the canvas, but sooner or later you'll be bit by the fact they aren't clipped by the canvas borders. Here's code that illustrates the point:
    canvas .c -width 100 -height 100 -bd 0 -bg bisque  ;# ahh, bisque!
    place  .c -relx .5 -rely .5 -anchor c
    . configure -width 250 -height 250

    button .c.b -text "Child of canvas"
    button .b -text "Child of \".\""
    .c create window 10 25 -window .c.b -anchor c
    .c create window 10 75 -window .b   -anchor c

HJG: Every ".xxx" now changed to ".c.xxx". I'm not sure how much that will gain in practice - if users can resize an application-window, other problems might show up...

uniquename 2014jan27

For those who do not have the facilities or time to implement the code samples above, here is (1) an image of Gurt's 'Neuro1' widgets-on-canvas demo (with the widgets as children of the canvas) and (2) an image of the code above that shows how clipping of a widget can occur when the widget is a child of the canvas, thus assuring that the widget does not appear outside the bounds of the canvas.

I plan to use a widgets-on-canvas technique like this --- in combination with a canvas-tiling technique seen on wiki page tiled image --- to make some nice Linux Tk GUI's --- about as nice as Tk GUI's on Apple and Microsoft OSes.

Note that Gurt uses canvas 'create window' to place the widgets on the canvas. And he uses relief 'ridge' on the 'scale' widgets and relief 'sunken' on the 'entry' widgets, which seems to embed the scale and entry troughs into the canvas.

(I also removed brackets from around 4 strings on this page which did not resolve to a web page. This was causing my web browser --- and probably web browsers of others --- to 'hang' in a continued-processing mode, apparently trying to resolve the links.)

See also: box3d.tcl