**Purpose:**Show how to convert between rectangular and polar co-ordinates in Tcl.

If you have rectangular co-ordinates $x and $y, and you need polar co-ordinates $r and $theta, you can use the following:

proc rect_to_polar {x y} { list [expr {hypot($y, $x)}]\ [expr {atan2($y, $x)}] } lassign [rect_to_polar $x $y] r thetaNote the use of hypot and atan2 in the code above. These functions are much more robust than any corresponding code using atan and sqrt.

If you have polar co-ordinates $r and $theta, and you need rectangular co-ordinates $x and $y, you can use the following:

proc polar_to_rect {r theta} { list [expr {$r * cos($theta)}]\ [expr {$r * sin($theta)}] } lassign [polar_to_rect $r $theta] x y

AM Here is the conversion between rectangular and spherical coordinates:

proc rect_to_spherical {x y z} { list [set rad [expr {hypot($x, hypot($y, $z))}]] [expr {atan2($y,$x)}] [expr {acos($z/($rad+1.0e-20))}] } proc spherical_to_rect {rad phi theta} { list [expr {$rad * cos($phi) * sin($theta)}] [expr {$rad * sin($phi) * sin($theta)}] [expr {$rad * cos($theta)}] }(where phi is the angle in the x-y plane, and theta is the angle from the z axis.)AMG: As documented on hypot, the other day I found that hypot($x,hypot($y,$z)) takes 38.6% longer than sqrt($x*$x+$y*$y+$z*$z) but is much less susceptible to under/overflow for very small or large input values.

KPV - Hey, I'll take up the hard task of converting cylindrical (r, theta, z) to rectangular (x, y, z).

proc rect_to_cylindrical {x y z} { list {*}[rect_to_polar $x $y] $z } proc cylindrical_to_rect {r theta z} { list {*}[polar_to_rect $r $theta] $z }

AM Anyone wanting to add the conversions for the other orthogonal coordinate systems?