Updated 2016-09-22 12:04:39 by oehhar

msgcat is a built-in manages Tcl message catalogs for localising text

Documentation  edit

official reference

Description  edit

msgcat command are used to localise text in a program. Commands are provided to manipulate a database of translations for strings of text. The commands can be stored in separate files having the suffix, .msg.

Instead of
label .x -text Files

if you write
label .x -text [mc Files]

Message Catalog  edit

Use mcload to load translations into the message catalog from files ending in the suffix .msg.

The naming convention for .msg files is that the root name shall be the target locale of its contents, e.g. "en_us_funky". msgcat searches the contents first of en_us_funky.msg, then en_us.msg, then en.msg.

mcset can be used to add translations to the message catalog. See, for example, Vogel spiral.

Alexandru provided this page for general localisation hints: [1]

Setting the Locale  edit

$env(LANG), $env(LC_ALL), or $env(LC_MESSAGES). is used to determine the initial locale. The locale can be explicitly set, e.g.:
::msgcat::mclocale fr

Formatting  edit

mc applies format to the translated string, so
mc "Directory contains %d files" $nfiles

allows a translator to work with the string, "Directory contains %d files".

escargo 2003-12-08: What if you want to do some form of parameter substitution in the strings that you might use with msgcat? In some systems I have developed, messages were somewhat macro-like; you might pass a number or a name (of a file, for example) that should be part of the message. Is there anything in the msgcat that does the substitution internally, or do I have to add my own layer on top of it?

RS: Easy, for instance with format:
msgcat::mcset fr "Directory contains %d files" "Il y a %d fichiers"
puts [format [mc "Directory contains %d files"] $nfiles]

DGP: Even easier: There's a format already built-in to mc:
puts [mc "Directory contains %d files" $nfiles]

EKB: I moved this example up to the top of the page and combined it with the intro text so it's easier to find.

AM Also very useful: the %1$s type format codes - with this you can interchange variables if needed.
% mc "this is a %s test for %s" first anything
this is a first test for anything

% mc {this is a %2$s test for %1$s} first anything
this is a anything test for first

Note the {} around the text to prevent interpretation of $ variable substitution

Usage  edit

package require msgcat ;# and done 
namespace import msgcat::* ;# (or msgcat::mc).

Provided you have .msg files containing
::msgcat::mcset de Files Dateien
::msgcat::mcset fr Files Fichiers

The following will produce the translation, depending on the current locale:
mc Files

Example: Basic  edit

RS 2007-01-08: Here's a simple self-contained example for testing:
#!/usr/bin/env tclsh
package require msgcat

msgcat::mcset de yes Ja
msgcat::mcset de no  Nein
msgcat::mcset fr yes Oui
msgcat::mcset fr no  Non

proc localbool value {
    if {$value} {msgcat::mc yes} else {msgcat::mc no}
puts [localbool 0]/[localbool 1]
hat's all. Save that to a file, and run it with different LANG settings:
$ /Tcl/msgcat.tcl
$ LANG=fr /Tcl/msgcat.tcl
$ LANG=en /Tcl/msgcat.tcl

Example: Switching Languages  edit

compliments of dgp: (HaO 20156-07-01: the tk (re)load is only necessary for msgcat prior to version 1.6)
package require Tk

# Show the bg error box in the default language
bgerror 123

# Show the bg error box in French language
msgcat::mclocale "fr"
msgcat::mcload [file join $::tk_library msgs]
bgerror 123

# Show the bg error box in British English language
msgcat::mclocale "en_gb"
msgcat::mcload [file join $::tk_library msgs]
bgerror 123

Using Tags Instead of Text  edit

HaO 2012-07-17:

Given the code with a localised error message:
if {[catch {open $File r} Err]} {
    puts stderr [mc "File error accessing '%s': %s" $File $Err]

and the German translation (the contents of the de.msg file):
msgcat::mcset de "File error accessing '%s': %s" "Zugriffsfehler Datei '%s': %s"

I use tags instead of a default translation. The default (English) text is contained in the root translation:

Contents of the de.msg file:
msgcat::mcset de errFile "Zugriffsfehler Datei '%s': %s"

Contents of the ROOT.msg file:
msgcat::mcset {} errFile "File error accessing '%s': %s"

if {[catch {open $File r} Err]} {
    puts stderr [mc errFile $File $Err]

Why that ?

  • If I change the default text, I do not have to change the translation keys
  • It feels more systematic to me to separate text and code
  • If a text is the same in english but different in german, I may not make any difference
  • If I forget a translation, I get only a stupid tag. Nothing for lazy guys...

In this case, it is helpful to redefine 'mcunknown' to also return the given parameters:
proc ::msgcat::mcunknown {locale args} {
        return $args

Default mcunknown:
% msgcat::mc tag1 p1 p2

Custom mcunknown:
% msgcat::mc tag1 p1 p2
tag1 p1 p2

Other Examples  edit

simple text editor
multilingual menu
Tk internationalization
A little stopwatch
Vogel Spiral
Uses mcset to populate the message catalog. Illustrates use of source strings that serve as tags rather than as the default text, using "%" as an ad-hoc prefix that denotes tags.

Locale Detection  edit

HaO 2013-05-10:

It is relatively hard to debug language guessing, as the developpers depend on computers in any language which is seldomly the case. Thus I ask your help, if you think, the language guessing is not correct.

From Windows Vista on, the language system of windows passed from a numerical identifier to IETF language tags.

Start wish and type:
% msgcat::mclocale

On Windows Vista and later, you should mostly get a language and a country. If you only get the language, please check the following:

Verify, if one of the following environment variables are set: 'LC_ALL', 'LC_MESSAGES' or 'LANG'. This might be the fact due to an installed Cygwin:
% msgcat::mclocale
% parray env

In this case start wish without those environment variables set, for example by the following batch file:
set LANG=

Now, the language settings are taken from the registry. If you still get bad results, please execute the following commands in a wish and post them with the correct language choice:
package require msgcat
package require registry
registry get {HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Control Panel\Desktop} PreferredUILanguages
registry get {HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Control Panel\International} LocaleName
registry get {HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Control Panel\International} locale

In the upcoming msgcat 1.5.2, those keys are checked in this order. The first is the IETF language tag, and exists only if language packs are installed. The second is the IETF language tag for default file language. The third is the numeric language ID as used up to Windows XP

Here is a result table:
mclocalePreferredUILanguagesLocaleNamelocaleSystem description and comments
de_devalue does not existde-DE00000407German Windows Vista 32 bit SP3, also German Win 8.1 64
el_grel-GRel-GR00000408English Windows 7 Ultimate 64 bit, SP 1, with Greek UI language enabled

Implicit locale for mc files  edit

Per TIP 404.

HaO 2012-10-15: This feature is now included in TCL8.6b3 (docs) and is backported to TCL8.5 to be included in TCL8.5.13.

It is now recommended to use:
msgcat::mcflset original translation

instead of
msgcat::mcset locale original translation

within message files which are loaded by msgcat::mcload.

Open Issue: Using msgcat with TclOO  edit

Twylite 2013-03-01: msgcat searches for messages in the current namespace, then parent namespaces up to the global namespace. To look up a message in a different (non-parent) namespace you must use namespace eval or an equivalent.

TclOO class names are distinct from the unique namespace dynamically-allocated to the class on construction. The class name may or may not correspond to the name of a namespace. To support file-based message catalogs (*.msg) we would need to (i) have the messages in a namespace; and (ii) have a static pre-determined name for the namespace.

Twylite 2013-03-12: Working towards a TIP, as requested (see below). Following feedback from DKF I think that it is conceptually reasonable to search for messages in an object's inheritance hierarchy, and to avoid using namespace search at all when dealing with objects. To keep the interface clean there should be new msgcat::oo::* procs to indicate that we are working with a message in the inheritance hierarchy, rather than turning msgcat::mc into a DWIM.

The solution below is a minimal embodiment of the interface, and does not yet support message inheritance. Use oo::define $cls mcset ... to define a message on a class, or msgcat::oo::mcset $cls ... to do the same in a .msg file. Use mymc ... in a method declared on a class to retrieve a message defined on that class. mymc should support inheritance and polymorphism in future, but for now you can use msgcat::oo::mc $otherclass ... to explicitly refer to a message in a superclass.

For the original solution see the page History. Description of the original solution: The solution I propose is to put messages for a class ::$ns::$cls into the namespace ::msgs::$ns::$cls, and to provide helpers oo::define $cls mcset and ::msgcat::classmc to respectively set and retrieve catalog messages. As an alternative to ::msgcat::classmc a class method mc is also provided.
# See http://wiki.tcl.tk/21595 for oo::DefWhat
proc ::oo::DefWhat {} { uplevel 3 [list namespace which [lindex [info level -2] 1]] }

namespace eval ::msgcat::oo {}

proc ::msgcat::oo::mcset {cls locale src {dest {}}} {
  namespace eval $cls [list ::msgcat::mcset $locale $src $dest] 

proc ::msgcat::oo::mc {cls src args} {
  namespace eval $cls [list ::msgcat::mc $src {*}$args] 

proc ::oo::define::mcset {args} {
  tailcall ::msgcat::oo::mcset [::oo::DefWhat] {*}$args

proc oo::Helpers::mymc {args} {
  tailcall ::msgcat::oo::mc [uplevel 1 { self class }] {*}$args

Using it:
package require compat

oo::class create ::Alpha 

oo::define Alpha mcset en FooMsg "this is the foo msg"
namespace eval ::Alpha {
  ::msgcat::mcset fr FooMsg "this is the french msg"

oo::define ::Alpha method testMsg1 {} {
  mymc FooMsg

oo::define ::Alpha method testMsg2 {} {
  msgcat::oo::mc [self class] FooMsg

set a [Alpha new]

oo::class create ::Beta {
  superclass ::Alpha
  mcset en BarMsg "this is the bar msg"
  method testMsg3 {} {
    mymc BarMsg
set b [Beta new]

oo::class create ::Gamma {
  method testMsg4 {} {
    mymc FooMsg ;# no inheritance yet
  method testMsg5 {} {
    msgcat::oo::mc ::Alpha FooMsg
set g [Gamma new] 

::msgcat::mclocale en
$a testMsg1
$a testMsg2
$b testMsg1
$b testMsg2
$b testMsg3
$g testMsg4
$g testMsg5

::msgcat::mclocale fr
$a testMsg1
$a testMsg2
$b testMsg1
$b testMsg2
$b testMsg3
$g testMsg4
$g testMsg5

HaO Looks reasonable to me. Could you prepare a TIP?

EB: Here is another attempt to use msgcat and TclOO.

Using an Alternate msgcat Package  edit

HaO 2012-07-24 PYK 2013-08-22:

Both Tk and clock, which may be loaded before any script is able to extend the auto_path, load msgcat. Therefore, to use an alternate msgcat, place it in the default module path.

Name the replacement msgcat.tcl to msgcat-1.x.x.tm, where 1.x.x is greater than the version that is being replaced. Typically, these files should be placed in
<tcl install folder>/lib/lib8/8.5

If the program is wrapped into an executable starkit (not .kit), the msgcat file should be placed in:

If an application is wrapped using ActiveState TclApp, I did not find any way to wrap anything to the upper path. But I made a custom tap file containing a pkgIndex.tcl and a msgcat.tcl and this worked (at least for a console application).

As an alternative, an already loaded msgcat package (here below 1.6.0) may be replaced by:
if {1 != [catch {package present msgcat} ver] && ![package vsatisfies $ver 1.6-] } {
    package forget msgcat
    namespace delete ::msgcat
package require msgcat 1.6-
# if tk is used eventually reload the tk msgcat setup
msgcat::mcload [file join $::tk_library msgs]

TIP399: Change Locale at Run-time  edit

There was previously an alternate implementation here, which has been superseded by the following information.

HaO 2012-07-17:

TIP 399 contains a patch to use msgcat in an environment which dynamically changes languages.

msgcat-1.5.0.tm is available in the linked feature request #3511941. This file may be put to the tcl lib to be tested. In my experience, it is not sufficient to have the file within an individual project. It must be copied to the Tcl installation beside the present file msgcat-1.4.4.tm.

  • This feature is also included in the download files of #3544988. There is also a tclapp tap-file available as download.

HaO 2012-08-27: Two things happened:

  • AK has asked how other packages may ask for information about a locale change (see below Dynamic namespace change callback).
  • TIP 399 was voted yes. DGP voted present with the following comment:
        What I would prefer is to vote YES for the "turn the whole
        package over to Harald Oehlmann to do as he pleases".

        The proposal seems fine, to address the problem posed.
        What gives me pause is that the TIP seems to demonstrate that
        the original design of msgcat just isn't any good.  At some
        point we'd be better off not slapping in more bells and whistles
        and alternatives and just creating a new (version of a?) package
        that learns the lessons and gets it right this time.

Complete solution

I came to the conclusion, that dynamic local change is wanted but the proposed solution only solves parts of the issue. Here is an extract of my message on the core-list:

Unfortunately, the solution within the tip is half-baken and I ask for some time to design a better solution and rewrite a tip.

I am sorry for that but I am convinced, this is the best way to go. I might be wrong, but at least I will try.

A good solution for TIP 399 must automatically reload locale files on a locale change.

Sketch of my current view of a solution

There is a new command to set per caller namespace config data (namespace equal package, as each package should have one namespace and one set of locale files):
msgcat::mcpackageconfig ?-namespace namespace? setting ?value?

Settings per caller namespace/package:

  • message file folder (also auto-set by msgcat::mcload) (to be able to load missing locale files on a locale change)
  • callback function before reload of the message file due to a locale change (change to a jet unloaded locale)
  • callback function after a locale change
  • flag, if locale files should be reloaded if needed

All of them are get and setable. The function returns with an error, if the namespace does not exist.

The advantages of this:

  • the concept of the caller/package namespace already exists within msgcat. This is continued.
  • the caller namespace may be autodetected or specified
  • the settings might automatically be cleared if the namespace is removed and the corresponding function may be automatically disabled
  • IMHO very transparent

There are the following additional configuration settings:

  • currently loaded locales (sum of all mcpreferences, readonly)
  • Flag, if unneeded locale data is cleared on locale change

Locale change callback  edit

(HaO 2015-07-01: local change callback is implemented in msgcat 1.6 with TIP412 which will be included in tcl 8.6.4)

HaO 2012-08-22: AK asked by personal email:

Do we have a <<LocaleChanged>> virtual event like we have <<ThemeChanged>>, which is used to inform all widgets when 'mclocale' was switched at runtime ?

HaO answered:

No, we dont have this currently.

As it is a tcl-only package, we do not have the bind command.

Thus we could register a command which is called when the locale changes:
msgcat::mcconfig -command ?lcmd?

  • lcmd : list of cmd ?namespace?
  • cmd: Command to call when locale changes. Specify empty string to unregister.
  • namespace: the callers module namespace which is only used as a register id to store the command. If not specified, the callers current namespace is used. There is one registered command possible per namespace value.

When the command fails, bgerror is called. An eventual locale change command (ex: msgcat::mclocale en_us), which executes the commands does not return with an error if a locale change callback fails.

package provide mymodule 1.0
namespace eval mymodule {
    # Register a locale change callback
    msgcat::mcconfig -command [list myLocaleChanged]
    # Unregister the locale change callback
    msgcat::mcconfig -command ""

AK 2012-08-22 by email:

> As it is a tcl-only package, we do not have the bind command.

True. Nor the 'event generate'.

I had thought about auto-detecting a Tk environment to restrict when it broadcasts a change, however your idea with a configurable callback is better, from an architectural point of view.

Hm. ... Hadn't thought about multiple callbacks. Guess because I was thinking in terms of events, where I can bind multiple things as I see fit.

This restriction to one-per-namespace, and providing it through a list ... I do not like that too much. It is workable, true. Still don't like it. This shoehorning multiple callbacks through a single config option feels wrong.

For multiple callbacks I would use dedicated (un)register commands, and tokens. I.e.
msgcat::register <cmdprefix>

returns a token, which is then the argument to
msgcat::unregister <token>

to identify the callbacks and remove them individually.

See uevent for an example of how I did that for a tcl event package.

WHD 2012-08-22 by email:

See also the hook module in Tcllib.

HaO 2012-08-27: Discussion continues in the upper point Dynamic mode - change locale on run-time. There I write, why I prefer namespace instead of tolkens.

MG 2012-08-22: I use something similar to this in his app:
proc setLocale {new_locale} {
    variable locales;
    variable current_locale;

    set split [split $new_locale "_"]
    set preflist [list]
    for {set i 0} {$i < [llength $split]} {incr i} {
        lappend preflist [join [lrange $split 0 end-$i] "_"]

    set current_locale ""
    foreach x $preflist {
        if { [info exists locales($x)] } {
            set current_locale $x

    if { ![info exists current_locale] || $current_locale eq "" } {
        set current_locale "en_gb"

    # Set our best available
    ::msgcat::mclocale $current_locale

    # Update display to make sure we're using it
    if { $skin ne "" } {


};# setLocale

The $locales array records exactly which locales I've loaded some form of translation for, since msgcat doesn't seem to expose that information. The code makes sure that there actually is a translation for the requested locale, and picks a less specific one if necessary in much the same way msgcat does. It falls back on en_gb as a default. Like msgcat, all the locale names are stored entirely in lowercase (en_gb not en_GB). The code after the last comment calls various procs which alter existing GUI elements to use the new locale, but could easily be replaced with something like
proc rchildren {widget} {
  event generate $widget <<LocaleChanged>>
  foreach x [winfo children $widget] {
    rchildren $x
rchildren .

so you could bind to <<LocaleChanged>> for the assorted widgets instead.

HaO 2012-08-27: Thank you, Mike, for the contribution. The language change is user level and should still work as you do it, but this is slightly off-topic. Andreas is asking, how non-user packages which store translated messages somehow (like the tcllib tooltip package) may by their action be informed about a locale change.

TIP 412 Dynamic Locale Changing for msgcat with On-Demand File Load  edit

HaO 2015-07-01: Vote to tip accepted, changes are merged to the core. TCL 8.6.5+ will probably have it buildin.

Discussion on future msgcat on ETCL 2014 conference

HaO 2014-02-25: I proposed a discussion on the ETCL 2014 conference about the future of msgcat. Please feel free to contribute (also below this text).

Here are the slides: [2]

History  edit

msgcat became a built-in package with Tcl version 8.1

msgcat 1.3, distributed with Tcl 8.4 also initializes the locale from $env(LC_ALL) or $env(LC_MESSAGES).

The 8.3.4 release of the PPC binary is broken in that it lacks msgcat and bgerror implementations. Melissa Schrumpf explains the situation with her customary clarity
    ... bgerror and msgcat are contained in tcl/library/msgcat/msgcat.tcl.

    Do this:

    Copy "Simply Tk (PPC)" to "Simply Tk (PPC).edit"

    Run ResEdit (or Resourcer, or whathaveyou).  Open a "Simply Tk
    (PPC).edit" in ResEdit.  Open the "TEXT" resources.  Open resource ID
       "package require msgcat"

    This will be right at the top.

    Next, open tcl/library/msgcat/msgcat.tcl in a text editor.  Copy from
    the beginning of the line:

       package provide msgcat 1.1.1

    through to the end of the file.

    Return to ResEdit.  Delete the line "package require msgcat" and,
    in its place, paste the code you copied from msgcat.tcl.
    Close all resources and save.

    You now have a fixed stand-alone Tk shell.

See Also  edit

msgcat magic
msgcat and shortcut keys
important for GUI application writers
ampersand magic
further information about shortcut keys
msgcat-Ready Script Utility
message catalog
Tk and msgcat
uses msgcat when formatting source code, replacing source strings with their translations directly in the source code
A small but useful script by Anton Kovalenko which converts non-ascii characters from current system encoding to \uXXXX sequences. Possibly useful to anyone who works often with tcl message catalogs.
GNU gettext
as of version 0.13, has support for Tcl msgcat and conversion tools from and to PO format.